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                賀知章的詩

                       賀知章(公元659-744年),字季真,越州永興(今浙江省杭州市蕭山區)人。武則天證圣元年進士,授國子四門博士,遷太常博士。后歷任禮部侍郎、秘書監、太子賓客等職。為人曠達不羈,有“清談風流”之譽,晚年尤縱,自號“四明狂客”、“秘書外監”。八十六歲告老還鄉,旋逝。屬盛唐前期詩人,又是著名書法家。作品大多散佚,現僅存二十首。

                  賀知章早年遷居山陰(今浙江紹興)。少時即以詩文知名。唐武后證圣元年(695)中進士,初授國子四門博士,后遷太常博士。開元十年(722),由麗正殿修書使張說推薦入該殿書院,參與撰修《六典》、《文纂》等書,未成,轉官太常少卿。十三年為禮部侍郎、集賢院學士。后調任太子右庶子、侍讀、工部侍郎。二十六年改官太子賓客、銀青光祿大夫兼正授秘書監,因而人稱“賀監”。

                  賀知章詩文精佳,且書法品位頗高,尤擅草隸,“當世稱重”,好事者供其箋翰,每紙不過數十字,共傳寶之。他常醉輒屬籍,常與張旭、李白飲酒賦詩,切磋詩藝,時稱“醉中八仙”,又與包融、張旭、張若虛等結為“吳中四士。”天寶三年(744),因病恍惚,上疏請度為道士,求還鄉里,舍本鄉宅為觀,求周宮湖數頃為放生池。詔許之,賜鑒湖一曲。玄宗御制詩以贈,皇太子率百官餞行。回山陰五云門外“道士莊”,住“千秋觀”,建“一曲亭”自娛,繁紙不過數十字。“廳館好墻壁及屏障,忽忘機,興發,落筆數行,如蟲篆飛走,雖古之張索不如也。”,愛好書法者視為珍品。他的墨跡留傳很少,現存尚有紹興城東南宛委山南坡飛來石上的《龍瑞宮記》石刻和流傳到日本的《孝經》草書。

                   其間,寫下《回鄉偶卷》2首:“少小離家老大回,鄉音無改鬢毛衰。兒童相見不相識,笑問客從何處來。”“離別家鄉歲月多,近來人事半消磨。唯有門前鏡湖水,春風不改舊時波。”為人傳誦而膾炙人口,未幾病逝,年八十六。乾元元年(758)肅宗以侍讀之歸,贈禮部尚書。現存詩19首,多為祭祀樂章和應制詩。文有《龍瑞宮記》、《會稽洞記》各1卷。今存《龍瑞宮記》摩崖,留存于宛委山南坡飛來石上,為難得之古代題刻。《新唐書》、《舊唐書》有傳。

                  賀知章生性曠達豪放,善談笑,好飲酒,又風流瀟灑,為時人所傾慕。當看到李白的詩文,即贊為“謫仙人也”,后成為忘年之交,并把李白引薦給唐玄宗為官。賀晚年放蕩不羈,自稱“四明狂客”,又因其詩豪放曠放,人稱“詩狂”。常與李白、李適之、李琎、崔宗之、蘇晉、張旭、焦遂飲酒賦詩,時謂“醉八仙”。

                  天寶三年(744),賀知章告老還鄉,為道士。離開京師時,玄宗曾賜詩,皇太子及文武百官為其餞行,回鄉后不久病卒。有“詩狂”之稱。

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