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                梅堯臣的詩

                梅堯臣(1002~1060)字圣俞,世稱宛陵先生,北宋著名現實主義詩人。漢族,宣州宣城(今屬安徽)人。宣城古稱宛陵,世稱宛陵先生。初試不第,以蔭補河南主簿。50歲后,于皇祐三年(1051)始得宋仁宗召試,賜同進士出身,為太常博士。以歐陽修薦,為國子監直講,累遷尚書都官員外郎,故世稱“梅直講”、“梅都官”。曾參與編撰《新唐書》,并為《孫子兵法》作注,所注為孫子十家著(或十一家著)之一。有《宛陵先生集》60卷,有《四部叢刊》影明刊本等。詞存二首。

                梅堯臣是中國北宋詩人。宣城古名宛陵,故世稱宛陵先生。少時應進士不第,歷任州縣官屬。中年后賜同進士出身,授國子監直講,官至尚書都官員外郎。在北宋詩文革新運動中,梅與歐陽修、蘇舜欽齊名,并稱梅歐或蘇梅。

                據《至德縣志》記載:梅堯臣北宋景佑元年至五年(1034年-1038年)任建德縣令,居官清廉正直。去官后,人民緬懷他,把縣城改稱梅城,并于其官舍西偏,為梅公堂以祀之,后又在梅城后面的白象山半山坡上建起了一座梅公亭以慰其景仰之思,又得以登臨之美。梅公亭始建于宋嘉定年間,元至正二年(1342年)、明正德十五年(1520年)、清康熙十年(1671年)三次重建,民國七年(1918年)縣長王人鵬再次重修,并作文摹泐于亭基巖壁之上。亭,磚木結構,呈長方形,畫棟雕梁,為樓閣式建筑,面筒形黑色陶瓦,四角飛翹,周植古松翠竹,景色宜人。“文革”時梅公亭被毀,今僅存遺址,現為縣級重點文物保護單位。

                他生于農家,幼時家貧,酷愛讀書,16歲鄉試未取之后,由于家庭無力供他繼續攻讀再考,就跟隨叔父到河南洛陽謀得主簿(相當于現今的文書)一職,后又在孟縣、桐城縣連續擔任主簿職務。在連任三縣主簿之后例升知縣,召試,賜進士出身,累遷尚書都官員外郎,故有梅都官之稱。梅堯臣入仕之后,曾胸懷大志,抱有遠大抱負,他原名“圣俞”,后改“堯臣”,意為立志要做個圣明君王的賢臣,然而他卻沒有遇到圣君。

                梅堯臣任建德縣令的五年間,為人誠厚,清高自持,頗能體察民間疾苦,盡自己的力量做了許多惠政于民的事情。他經常深入鄉間百姓家微服私訪,與農人、與燒瓦匠、與貧婦交談,了解民間疾苦,還親自趕赴山林大火現場,洪水泛濫的溪流進行實地察看;他革除弊政,事必躬親,當時建德為山區小縣,縣署外有圓破舊的竹籬,常年需要修護,因此成了向民眾勒索的借口,梅堯臣來后果斷以土墻代替,并在院內植了一叢竹子。元吳師道在《梅公亭記》中贊頌他“以仁厚、樂易、溫恭、謹質稱其人”。

                梅公雖然在位途上極不得意,而在詩壇上卻享有盛名,他懷著無限的悲憤、苦悶、渴望和痛苦的心情,寫出了大量的激動人心的詩篇。在當時,他和蘇舜欽齊名,在詩壇上聲望很高,被稱為“蘇梅”,又和歐陽修是好朋友,都是詩歌革新運動的推動者,對宋詩起了巨大的影響。他積極支持歐陽修的古文運動,他的詩作分為古淡與刻畫兩種,為當時人所推崇。梅公在公務之余,還經常步出縣衙,流連于建德、東流、池州的青山綠水之間,寫了不少詠景詠物詠友的詩,從梅堯臣在建德留下的百篇詩作中,我們可以看出梅堯臣的獨特風格,它平易而深刻,細膩而貼切,凝煉而又有自由,新巧而又潑辣,他在一向被抒情詩用慣了的短小形式里,能夠突破陳規,做到議論突出,談吐不凡。在山水景物的描繪方面,也形成了刻劃個性、摹寫細節的特點,給人以新鮮細致的感受。
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